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Monday, 17 February 2014

Research Proposal



Research Topic (Global Challenge): Sustainability of exponential population growth
Chosen Area of Focus: The relationships of Singapore’s population and resources

Group Members’ Names:
a) Rachel Tan
b) Ng Jia hui Gloria
c) Ling Si Hui, Shiho

1. Statement of problem (framing our research topic):

Our chosen area of focus is “ If Singapore continue to increase the population, where will we get the resources needed for so many people?”.
We have chosen this topic as most of the country in the world are facing the problem of not enough resources such as, Saharan Africa, Libya and Yemen, just to name a few. The news sometimes say that they have difficulties in managing the ratio of the resources to the population and we can’t help but agree sometimes as we all know that resources can be limited and our country, Singapore’s population are increasing rapidly. It has been found by a survey conducted for the U.N. Global Compact, the world’s largest corporate initiative to develop a more sustainable global economy. The survey of more than 1000 CEOs across the world-largest of its kind ever conducted- found that two- thirds believe the global economy is not on track to meet the demands of a growing population. This topic can help to analyze the resources we have at the moment and estimate how long or how much resources we have for other future purposes.  This can help us see how much resources we are currently using and thus allowing us to know if there will be enough. Therefore we think that this chosen area of focus is the most appropriate as it is both beneficial to our knowledge and life. This can both show the chain effect on population and their resources from the current time till the further future.

2. Research Objectives

Our objective of this topic is to find out what can be done to ensure that the population is balanced with the resources that we have and what can be done if the population in country is more than the amount of resources it has. It is an ongoing topic in every country, including Singapore, and we want to see how it affects a country as a whole.This can also help to estimate the amount of resources needed for the future and how much we have currently to sustain the amount of people we have in our country. This can help us get a foreseeable future so that we will be able to supply people the correct amount of resources.

3. Literature Review (Brief summary of at least 3 sources that you have consulted with reference to your research topic)
In 2011, the World Population reached 7 billion which has doubled in the past 45 years, increasing by over 140 people every minute equivalent to another Los Angeles plus another Chicago every month. However, the amount of the resources per person is declining. In spite of modern technology, the lack of resources continue to worsen as our numbers increase by more than 70 million more people every year. Also two billion people live in poverty, more than the population of the entire planet less than 100 years ago. While populations of some industrialized countries have stabilized, over three billion people live or struggle to exist in countries where population is still growing rapidly with doubling times of less than thirty years.
A meeting which more than 1000 global leaders including Obama attended, was held to brainstorm ways to head off increasing strains on the natural resources that keep the global economy on track. According to survey, two third of them believe the global economy is not on track to meet the demands of a growing population. The relentless growth of human population in the modern world has brought dire warnings of resource shortages ever since British economist more than 200 years ago predicted that overpopulation would bring a catastrophic famine."It's not the total number of people, it's the number in the consuming class," a senior fellow at the McKinsey Global Institute said. While the current world population of about 7 billion is projected to top 8 billion by 2030, almost all of that growth is expected to come in the developing world.Improved efficiencies in agriculture—the biggest source of water demand—could stretch supplies by substituting drop irrigation for sprayers or lining irrigation ditches with plastic.
According to this source, many researchers are researching on this topic and they find that  considering this issues is very important, as the increasing demands continue to place additional strains on already struggling systems of generations. Many countries are facing problems with resources shortages. Such as, California’s Sacramento and San Joaquin River are at near decade-low water storage levels, according to updates of satellites. Also, according to surveys by scientist and policy makers, water supply is one of the most pressing environmental issues United states. These resources shortage affects the climates changes and the change in climate will cause a lot of countries trouble such as greenland who over the past 2 decades, has loss ice, contributing one quarter of global sea level rise.
Singapore’s total population of residents and non-resident in 2020 is projected to be between 5.8 and 6 million, depending on our fertility trends, life expectancy, as well as our social and economic needs. The resident population (comprising of Singapore citizens and PRs) is projected to be 4 to 4.1 million, of which Singapore citizens alone will make up to 3.5 to 3.6 million.
By 2030, Singapore's total population could range between 6.5 and 6.9 million. There is a wider band of uncertainty, and the actual population will again depend on factors such as out fertility trends and life expectancy, the global and regional environment, our economic structure and social needs. The resident population (comprising of Singapore citizens and PRs) is projected to be 4.2 to 4.4 million, of which citizens alone will make up to 3.6 to 3.8 million.
Source 5:
In 1985, 80 million people were added to a world population of 4.8 billion. Each year the number of human beings increases, but the amount of natural resources with which to sustain this population, to improve the quality of human lives and to eliminate mass poverty remains finite. On the other hand, expanding knowledge increases the productivity of resources. Present rates of population growth cannot continue. They already compromise many governments' abilities to provide education, healthcare, and food security for people, much less their abilities to raise living standards. This gap between numbers and resources is all the more compelling because so much of the population growth is concentrated in low-income countries, ecologically disadvantaged regions, and poor households.Population pressure is already forcing traditional farmers to work harder, often on shrinking fame on marginal land, just to maintain household income. In Africa and Asia, rural population nearly doubled between 1950 and 1985, with a corresponding decline in land availability.
Source 6:  
The population of Earth was 1.5 to 2 billion people rather than the 7 billion who are alive today or the 9 billion expected in 2050. The question is: can you go over the top without a disaster, like a worldwide plague or a nuclear war between India and Pakistan? If we go on at the pace we are there's going to be various forms of disaster. Alarmist in the 1970s who says most of his predictions have proved correct, says he was gloomy about humanity's ability to feed over 9 billion people. Politicians can control the financial mess we are in but they don't have control over the systems of the planet that provide us our food, our welfare, those are deteriorating and it will take us a long time to turn it around if we start now. It's hard to think of anything that will pop up and save us.

Source 7:
At the same time, however, China suffers from shortages of natural resources. And this is reflected in absolute shortage and relative shortage. First of all, the absolute amount of natural resources supplies is inadequate, and this is closely connected with the country’s big population. For example, China’s cultivated land accounts for only 7% of the world’s total, whereas its population makes up 21% of the world’s total. Secondarily, there are relative shortages of a structural nature. This is reflected in three aspects: first, some important resources are inadequate, for example, reserves of petroleum, natural gas, copper and gold are not adequate. Second, a structural shortage of same-type resources.

Source 8:
As of June this year, Singapore’s total population stood at 5.4 million, said the National Population and Talent Division (NPTD). The citizen population grew by 0.9 per cent to 3.31 million - and continued to grow older, with 11.7 per cent aged 65 and above. In 2002, those aged 65 and above comprised 7.8 per cent. The median age of the citizen population also rose to 40 years in 2013, up from 35.3 years in 2002.
Source 9:
The exponential growth of global population and our economic system threaten the foundations of our way of life. Many analysts claim this exponential growth has already exceeded the carrying capacity of the earth. If this is accurate, we have little time to reduce our growth and resource use to a level below the earth’s carrying capacity. If we do not act quickly and decisively we risk the collapse of our environment as well as our economic and social systems, just as happened to all the previous 18 complex societies in the earth’s history.

4. Proposed Hypothesis
Our Hypothesis is that the resources in Singapore will run out very fast as the population increase rapidly. However, solutions are available as a result in the new modern technology we have now. But, we must learn to recycle, reuse and reduce as always as resources for now are limited.

5. Research Plan (Describe how you intend to design your research i.e. who/what you are going to research on, how many respondents, your study area/location etc)

We intends to design our research by showing the huge problems that we have because of the lack of resources and the percentages of the people in Singapore which is ridiculous. We are intending to survey people and make people raise their awareness of what is happening in the world we thought it is peaceful now. Our main audience are Adults to students. We are going to research on the Impacts of the population and the resources we have now. We intend to have as many respondents as possible to prove our research right. Our study area is Singapore as we want to know how is Singapore’s condition in this huge topics among the world.

6. Methodology (Describe what methods you are using to collect data, where and how the data can be collected and analysed)

We will be obtaining this information from primary and secondary sources, depending on which one gives more reliable and useful information. Another alternative that we thought of is to formulate question to interview people on what they feel about the unbalanced ratio between populations and resources and how it will affect the country and them. Some problems we anticipated while gathering the research materials would be that the information that we can find might not all be entirely relevant to our project and that that is already the closest piece of information among all others that we have found.

Survey Questions:
Sustainability of exponential population growth

Q1) What do you think about the relationship between the population and the resources?
Q2) Do you think there will be enough resources for all the population in the future? Why?
Q3) What are your thoughts on the current amount of resources and the population in Singapore?
Q4) How do you feel about the increasing population while the resources decrease?
Q5) Indicate how concern you are about resources not enough for the world’s populations?
Q6) Do you agree that the demands for resources are rising and the populations will not have enough any resources.
Q7) What do you think the ageing population is an urgent matter in Singapore?
Q8)How does the population affect the amount of resources in your opinion.
Q9)What can we do to sustain both resources and a population together?
Q10)What if one day we ran out of resources?
Q11)What do you think can be done to prevent the resources from running out?
Q12) How do you feel about the increasing population in Singapore?
Q13) What do you think can be done to prevent people around us from wasting valuable resources?
Q14)Do you think valuable resources are depleting? Name a few of these valuable resources.  
Q15) How fast do you think our resources are depleting along these years?
Q16) What can be done to prevent the resources from depleting?
Q17) What do you think is the relationship between the human population and resources?
Q18) Why do you think that there is a need to increase population in one country?
Q19) Do you think the lack of resources in the future can cause extinction to us humans? Why do  you think so?
Q20) What can be done to overcrowding in one country?

Chosen survey questions:

- What do you think is the relationship between the human population and natural resources?
a) Human population depend on natural resources to survive.
b) The Greater the increase in human population, the greater the decrease of the natural resources
c) The higher the human population, the lower the decrease in natural resources
d) The lower the resources, the higher the population.
- How does the population affect the amount of natural resources in your opinion.

- What are your thoughts on the current amount of natural resources and the population in Singapore?
1) I think it is fine.
5) Government needs to do something!

- What can we do to sustain both resources and a population together?
 a) Use lesser resources
b) Create more resources
c) Reduce, Reuse, Recycle
d) Others

- How long do you think our resources can last?
a) 80-90 years
b) 90-100 years
c) 100-110 years
d) 110-120 years

- What do you think can be done to prevent the resources from running out?

- Do you think that there is a need to increase population in one country? Why?

7. Research Schedule

TASK TO BE COMPLETED                

 Research Plan and Literature Review

 Literature review and survey questions

 Survey Questions

 Feedbacks of Survey

 Conclude Report

 Conclude Report

 Oral Presentation


Oral Presentation

Submit research Paper

8. Overall assessment on feasibility and manageability of the research (justify why your research can be managed and results be achieved within the time-frame)

There is need for our research, as the limited sources for the population in the world is one of the major problem that we are facing now. Hence, our research can help or impact the world to solve or to better understand what they can do when the resources for the populations aren’t enough. It is possible to carry out and complete this research as there are many articles writing about this issue and also population and resources is a major part of the white paper that came out a few years ago . The proposed course of action is logical and realistic as it can be completed with the help of some students and teachers, who is willing to share their opinions with us. Books, sources on the internet and most importantly hard work and group effort can help our group to achieve successful results. The research provide sufficient opportunity for generation of ideas, as we will constantly have to think of ways to do certain things in the project. As for analysis and evaluation of ideas, we will certainly have many opportunities to analyse information and evaluate ideas on how to go about deciding what to do next. The timeline for the different components of the project will be decided later based on the situation then. But overall, the project will be done as quickly and carefully as we can, trying our best not to go out of point and staying as close to the topic as possible. This research provides opportunity for group work as we will need to discuss a lot of matters regarding the project, and we feel that we will be more bonded after carrying out this group project. We do anticipate some difficulties along the way, such as lack of information. We intend to solve this problem by gathering as much credible data as possible, finding pages that has information about this topic.


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